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bmk methyl glycidate

The synthesis of RNA molecules involves a complex process carried out by enzymes called RNA polymerases. In higher organisms, such as humans, there are three main RNA polymerases, designated I, II, and III. Each of these polymerases is a complex protein consisting of many subunits. RNA polymerase I synthesizes three of the four types of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and is active in the nucleolus, where the genes encoding these rRNA molecules reside. RNA polymerase II synthesizes messenger RNA (mRNA), while RNA polymerase III synthesizes transfer RNA (tRNA) and the fourth RNA component of the ribosome, called 5S RNA.

RNA molecules play an active role within cells by catalyzing biological reactions , controlling gene expression, or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals. One of these active processes is protein synthesis, in which RNA molecules direct the synthesis of proteins on ribosomes. This process uses transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules to deliver amino acids to the ribosome, where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) then links amino acids together to form coded proteins.

The process of synthesizing RNA from the genetic information encoded by DNA is called transcription. The enzymes involved in transcription are called RNA polymerases. Prokaryotes have one type of RNA polymerase, while eukaryotes have three types of nuclear RNA polymerases. The RNA molecules involved in protein synthesis include messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).

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